Patient derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) mouse models grow & metastasize similar to the patient, in contrast to subcutaneous tumor-transplant models known as PDX. PDOX models are the most clinically-relevant mouse models of cancer. PDOX models allow the testing of anti-tumor and antimetastatic agents for individual cancer patients. PDOX models also predict the metastatic behavior of the patient and therefore, PDOX models are ideal for individualized treatment of cancer patients undergoing surgery or biopsy. The take rate for most patient cancer types for continuous growth in mice is high.